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双语科技百科(手工业) 第72期:秦始皇陵铜车马|亚博APP安全有保障

发布时间:2021-06-02    来源:亚博APP安全有保障92590

本文摘要:The Bronze Chariots and Horses of Emperor Qin Shihuangs Mausoleum秦始皇陵铜车马In December 1980,two sets of large painted bronze chariots and horses were unearthed 20 meters west of the mount of Emperor Qin Shihuangs Mausoleum. They were listed as No. 1 and No. 2 respectively according to their discovery. They were then enclosed in a wooden coffin and buried in a pit seven meters deep. When excavated, the chariots and horses were seriously damaged due to the decayed wooden coffin and the collapse of earthen layers. No. 2 bronze chariot and horses were found broken int0 1,555 pieces when excavated .After two and a half years of careful and painstaking restoration by archaeologists and other experts, they were formally open to the public on October l, 1983. No. 1 bronze chariot and horses were also open to the public in 1988. The bronze chariots drawn by four horses, with a single shaft, were placed one before the other vertically. The front chariot, i. e. No. 1 Chariot, was supposed to be High Chariot in the ancient time. The back chariot, i. e. No. 2 Chariot, was named Security Chariot. It has a front room and a rear room, between which there is a partition. The front room is for the charioteer and the rear one for the master. In the rear compartment, there is a window on either side of the carriage as well as in the front with a door at the back. The windows and doors could close and open easily. The small holes on the windows were used for ventilation. On top of the chariot, there was an elliptical umbrella-like canopy. The chariot was colour-painted against a white background. No. 2 Chariot was fitted with more than l,500 pieces of silver and gold and other ornaments, looking luxurious, splendid and graceful. Probably it was used for Emperor Qin Shihuangs soul to go out on inspection. No.1 Chariot was equipped with crossbows, arrow heads, shields and the charioteer wore a hat, which shows that this chariot was employed to protect the No. 2 Chariot be- hind. The bronze chariots and horses were the earliest and most exquisitely made bronze valuables. They enjoy the highest class and have the most complete harnessing wares. They are also the largest bronze ware discovered in the history of world archaeology. The excavation of the bronze chariots and horses provides extremely valuable material and data for the textual research of the metallurgical technique, mechanism of chariots and technological modeling of the Qin Dynasty.1980年12月在秦始皇陵西侧20米处,考古发掘出了两乘大型彩绘铜车马,按照找到的顺序,被编入一号和二号铜车马。

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The Bronze Chariots and Horses of Emperor Qin Shihuangs Mausoleum秦始皇陵铜车马In December 1980,two sets of large painted bronze chariots and horses were unearthed 20 meters west of the mount of Emperor Qin Shihuangs Mausoleum. They were listed as No. 1 and No. 2 respectively according to their discovery. They were then enclosed in a wooden coffin and buried in a pit seven meters deep. When excavated, the chariots and horses were seriously damaged due to the decayed wooden coffin and the collapse of earthen layers. No. 2 bronze chariot and horses were found broken int0 1,555 pieces when excavated .After two and a half years of careful and painstaking restoration by archaeologists and other experts, they were formally open to the public on October l, 1983. No. 1 bronze chariot and horses were also open to the public in 1988. The bronze chariots drawn by four horses, with a single shaft, were placed one before the other vertically. The front chariot, i. e. No. 1 Chariot, was supposed to be High Chariot in the ancient time. The back chariot, i. e. No. 2 Chariot, was named Security Chariot. It has a front room and a rear room, between which there is a partition. The front room is for the charioteer and the rear one for the master. In the rear compartment, there is a window on either side of the carriage as well as in the front with a door at the back. The windows and doors could close and open easily. The small holes on the windows were used for ventilation. On top of the chariot, there was an elliptical umbrella-like canopy. The chariot was colour-painted against a white background. No. 2 Chariot was fitted with more than l,500 pieces of silver and gold and other ornaments, looking luxurious, splendid and graceful. Probably it was used for Emperor Qin Shihuangs soul to go out on inspection. No.1 Chariot was equipped with crossbows, arrow heads, shields and the charioteer wore a hat, which shows that this chariot was employed to protect the No. 2 Chariot be- hind. The bronze chariots and horses were the earliest and most exquisitely made bronze valuables. They enjoy the highest class and have the most complete harnessing wares. They are also the largest bronze ware discovered in the history of world archaeology. The excavation of the bronze chariots and horses provides extremely valuable material and data for the textual research of the metallurgical technique, mechanism of chariots and technological modeling of the Qin Dynasty.1980年12月在秦始皇陵西侧20米处,考古发掘出了两乘大型彩绘铜车马,按照找到的顺序,被编入一号和二号铜车马。当时均被挖出在7米浅的坑里,外面用一个木椁装有着。

发掘出时,因木椁腐化,土层坍塌,两辆铜车马都破败相当严重,其中二号铜车马已碎成1555片,经过考古工作者和各方面专家两年半细心艰难的修缮,二号铜车马于1983年10月1日月对外展览,一号铜车马也于1988年月展览。这两乘车都是四马单辕,呈圆形前后横向排序,前面的一号车有误古代的“高车”。二号车叫“安车”,分成前御室和后乘室。

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两室之间隔以车墙。赶车的人躺在前御室,主人躺在后乘室。乘室前面及左右两侧有三个车窗,后面留门,门窗都可以灵活性开闭,窗上的小孔可以调节空气。

车上有椭圆形伞状车盖。此车通体施予白色为底色的彩绘,二号车备有1500余件金银构件和饰物,变得华丽发财?它有可能是可供秦始皇出游时搭乘的。

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一号车上配有有弓弩、箭头、盾牌,驾车者具有官帽,这解释此车是用来维护后面二号车的安全性的。铜车马是我国时代最先,驾具屈指可数,级别最低,制作最炼的青铜器珍品,也是世界考古找到的仅次于青铜器。它的发掘出,为考据秦代冶金技术、车辆结构、工艺造型等获取了十分贵重的实物资料。


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